Structural work is the particular method of assembling and constructing structural elements of a building so that they support and transmit applied loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in the members.
There are three basic types of structures: shell structures, frame structures and solid structures.
Demolition, or razing, is the science and engineering in safely and efficiently tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures.
Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which involves taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for reuse purposes.
Propping & Pinning
Propping is about preventing a structure falling over or slipping over usually by placing something underneath or against it.
Pinning or underpinning is the process of strengthening the foundation of an existing building or other structure. Underpinning may be necessary for a variety of reasons:
- The original foundation isn't strong or stable enough.
- The usage of the structure has changed.
Structural steelwork is generally used to form a the 'skeleton' frame of a building or other built asset, typically consisting of columns and beams which are riveted, bolted or welded together.
The processes involve lifting and placing components into position, then connecting them together. Generally this is achieved through bolting but sometimes site welding is used. The assembled frame needs to be aligned before bolting up is completed, and the structure handed over to the principal contractor.
Defined as "changes made to a building during its remodeling," alterations examples are increasing or reducing floor area, making or closing openings, erecting or demolishing walls, etc.
Alteration projects are defined at three basic scales: refurbishment of an area within a building, such as a floor or a suite; major renovation of an entire structure; and upgrade/ restoration of historic structures.
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